Occasionally, an infected lymph node may form a tunnel (fistula) through the skin and drain (leak fluid).
This disease is often not found because it is hard to diagnose. However, the Bartonella henselae IFA test from the blood is an accurate way to detect the infection caused by these bacteria, but must be considered with other information from your medical history, lab tests, or biopsy.
Generally, cat scratch disease is not serious. Medical treatment may not be needed. In some cases, treatment with antibiotics such as azithromycin can be helpful. Other antibiotics may be used including clarithromycin, rifampin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or ciprofloxacin.
In AIDS patients and other people who have a weakened immune system, cat scratch disease is more serious, and treatment with antibiotics is recommended.
Children who have a normal immune system should recover fully without treatment. In people with a suppressed immune system, treatment with antibiotics usually leads to recovery.
Call your health care provider if you have enlarged lymph nodes and you have been exposed to a cat.
Avoid contact with cats to prevent the disease. If this is not possible, wash your hands thoroughly after playing with a cat, avoid scratches and bites, and avoid cat saliva to reduce your risk of infection.
Stechenberg BW. Bartonella. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 201.
Slater LN, Welch DF. Bartonella, including cat-scratch disease. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 235.
Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.